Authors' Pages:  Gerald Spencer and Marcela Basteri
Spencer Family History:
The origins of the Spencer name come from the 11th Century A.D. in Norman England, after the conquest of England by William the Conquerer in
1066. One of the Norman knights, who accompanied William's order of knights, was Robert the DiSpencer. He was the son of Amauri d'Abbetot.
The name Spencer or DeSpencer comes from the Latin dispensarius, or 'le dispencer' in Norman French, according to historians. The term 'spence'
also means a kitchen. However the intended meaning of Spencer was 'Steward' or 'Stewart', one who is entrusted with the management of
property and finances, and that surname also derives from the same source. Robert DeSpencer had fought along side William in his invasion of
England, and was rewarded by William for his support with land grants in County Bedford. His children who took the surname, married into the
royal blood which descended from English, French and Spanish royalty lines. In 1086 Robert was granted the Motte and the Bailey Castle in
Tamworth Burgess.Robert's son was named William and he married Alix De Burgoyne and had two sons, named Thurston and Richard, born
about the beginning of the twelth century. Thurston inherited the castle and lands and married a noblewoman who bore him five sons- Almaric,
Walter, Hugh, Galfridus and Thomas. The oldest son, Almaric, married Eldai Blewett and their son was named Thurston, and he moved first to
London where he lived with his wife Lucia, and their son Geoffrey was born at Ellington, Lincolnshire, England and died in 1251. Geoffrey's sons
were named Geoffrey and Hugh, born in Worcestershire and Rutolandshire, England, respectively, during the last decade of the twelth
century.Hugh Le DeSpencer, the Elder, great great grandson of Thurston was born about 1262 and supported King Edward I in the war against
his rival, the Earl of Lancaster. He served in the Welsh war but was fined 2,000 marks because he married, without the king's license, Isabel,
daughter of William Beauchamp, earl of Warwick, the widow of Patrick of Chaworth. He accompanied Edward to Scotland and fought in the Battle
of Dunbar (I) and the expediition against Flanders in 1297. The King used him to negotiate for peace between Edward I and the King of the
Romans and the King of France. He served again in Scotland and then was sent to negociate with France which led to the peace of 1303. In 1305
he was sent to see Pope Clement V at Lyons and obtained a Papal bull which absolved King Edward from the oaths he had been forced to take to
his people. When Edward II was coronated as King, Hugh carried part of the royal insignia. He defended the king's favorite, Gaveston, in 1308
against the league of barons, which alienated him from the barons who regarded him as a deserter from their cause. The parliament, which met at
Northampton, declared his dismissal from the council (Vita Edwardi II, ii. 158; annales Paulini, i. 264). He was soon back in the favor of the King
and received the castles of Devises and Marlborough and soon became the chief adviser to the King. In 1312 he was sent, along with Aymer de
Valence, earl of Pembroke, to attempt to secure London for the King, but a riot ensued and they fled the city (Annales Londondienses, i.
215).After the murder of Gaveston by the barons, Hugh Despencer became the head of the court party and plotted with the King to exact
revenge against the barons. He bitterly opposed the Earl of Lancaster, and accompanied the King on his disastrous expedition to Scotland in
1314, and the defeat at Bannockburn, which placed the King at the mercy of Lancaster, Hugh was forced to resign from the court and the council.
However, in 1318, when the king had recouped his strength and was ready to oppose Lancaster, Hugh joined the other lords of the same party.
At approximately this time, his son, Hugh Despencer, the younger, joined the King's side, and father and son received large land grants from the
crown. They were hated by the barons and were accused of acts of oppression and wrongdoing. Because they were of noble family, they held the
most prominent place in the party against Lancaster's plans, and sought after their own advancement through alliance with the King in opposing
Lancaster. Because of their greed and amibition, they used their influence from the King for their own purposes. Hugh the younger began a
quarrel with Humphrey Bohun, earl of Hereford, and the latter formed a league against the Despencers, which included the lords of the Welsh
marches and other powerful nobles, who in 1321 ravaged the Despencers' lands and captured their castles in Wales and destroyed their manors
and fences around their chaces in England. The King tried to interfere on their behalf but was persuaded to call a parliament and the King was
pressured by parliament to consent to the banishment of the Despencers. Finally, he consented to the banishment and in July, 1321, the charges
against them were formally stated and considered in parliament, which caused the estrangement of the King from his people, since parliament had
usurped his authoriy and wouldn't allow the Despencers to see the King. The elder Despencer went abroad, but by December of 1321 the King
had obtained a condemnation of the sentence from the convocation of the clergy, and on January 1, 1322, Archbishop Reynolds declared it illegal
and the elder Despencer returned, joined the King in attacking his enemies.After the battle of Boroughbridge at which Lancaster was defeated, he
assisted the King in Lancaster's trial and condemnation, and was created Earl of Winchester by the parliament held at York. Unfortunately, the
Despencers were hated by Queen Isabella, who had gone to France as an ambassador to her brother Charles IV. War between the two countries
seemed imminent, and the queen refused the king's summons, until the Despencers were removed from power, and the Queen plotted to
overthrow the elder Despencer and his son. They persuaded the King to outlaw the Queen and her son, who was with her, but she arrived in
England with an armed force in September 1326 and issued a proclamation against the Despencers. The king fled before her army, and he sent
Hugh the elder to secure the town and castle of Bristol, but the Queen marched to Berkely, where she recaptured the castle previously held by the
Despencers and returned it to its owner, Thomas, Lord Berkeley. Then she marched to Bristol, where most of the people were on her side and
turned the elder Hugh over to the queen. The next day, October 27, 1326, he was sentenced to death, and executed as a traitor by being hanged
from a gallows 50 feet high, drawn, deboweled (See Braveheart) and beheaded, his body given to the dogs after four days, his head was sent to
Winchester. Hugh and his nephew Edward Le DeSpencer had strongly supported Tewkesbury Abbey in Gloucestershire, and between the two of
them, completed the Choir, the Roof, and the Chevet Chapels during the reigns of Edward II, III, Richard II and Henry IV, between 1307 and
1413, and the remains of his body was entombed there. His son, Hugh Le DeSpencer, the Younger, had accompanied King Edward II in his flight
from London to Cardiff in Wales, where they sought refuge in the Despencers' castles at Caerphilly and Neath. The queen sent William de la
Zouche and Rhys ap Howel to capture them, and they surrendered on November 16, 1326 at Llantrissaint, and were brought to Hereford where
the queen was waiting. The younger Hugh was charged with piracy, complicity in the murder of Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, and was condemned
and was excuted as a traitor with a death similar to his father, and his head was send to London where it was placed on London Bridge.
*(2).Geoffrey Le DeSpencer, who died about 1242, married Emma De St. John, on December 29, 1229, and they had one son named John. John
later married a lady named Anne at Defford, Worcestershire, England and their son was named William, who lived until about 1328, and married an
unknown lady about 1299 at Defford. The product of their union was named John, who lived in Defford until his death, after 1386. He and his wife,
Alice Deverall, the daughter of Sir Giles Deverell, had a son they named Nicholas. Nicholas lived at Defford and married Joan Pollard about 1365 at
Kent and their son Thomas was born after 1366 and lived at Badly, Nothamptonshire, England. The son of Thomas was the famous Henry G.
Spencer, born after 1392 who lived at Badly and married Isabella Lincoln, the daughter of Henry Lincoln, at Hodnell, Northamptonshire, England. It
was about this time, 1392, that the De Spencer family dropped the French appellation De, and simply became known as Spencer. Henry G.
Spencer had four sons, named Thomas, William, Nicholas and John, and one daughter named Margaret. Four U.S. Presidents, Princess Diana
Spencer, and Winston Churchill, among other noted people from the past, could trace their ancestry back to Henry and Isabella, through their
sons and daughter. Henry lived until the sixteenth year of King Edward IV, about 1477. One of Henry's executors, John, the youngest son,
married a woman with the family name Warsted, and had three sons, John, Thomas and William, the latter was born about 1444. William married
Elizabeth Empson, the daughter of Sir Peter Empson and Elizabeth Jospeh about 1469 at Towcester, Northamptonshire, England and later had
two sons, John and Thomas.John was made a Knight and married Isabel Graunt, the daughter of Walter Graunt and Elizabeth Rudinge about
1485. The union of John and Isabel produced three sons and three daughters, named William, Thomas and Anthony, Jane, Elizabeth and Dorothy,
all born near the end of the fifteenth and beginning of the sixteenth century. William married Susan Knightley, the daughter of Richard Knightley
and Jane Skenard. William and Susan were married about 1514 at Fawsley, Northamptonshire, England, and they had one son, John, born in
1517, and five daughters, Isabel, Jane, Dorothy, Anne and Marie. John lived at Fawsley, but married Catherine Kitson, daughter of Thomas Kitson
and Margaret Donington. The marriage of John and Catherine took place in 1545 at Hengrave, in Suffolk County, England, and they had five sons,
John, Thomas, William, Richard and Edward, and five daughters, Margaret, Elizabeth, Katherine, Mary and Anne, between 1546 and 1563. John,
who was born about 1551 in Wormleighton, Warwickshire, England, married Mary Catlin on September 11, 1566 in London, Middlesex, England.
Mary was the daughter of Robert Catlin and Anne Boles. The only child of John and Mary was named Robert Spencer at his birth in 1570 at
Wormleighton. He married Margaret Willoughby, the daughter of Francis Willoughby and Elizabeth Lyttleton. Robert and Margaret were wed on
Feb. 15, 1586 at Brighton, Northamptonshire, England, and the marriage produced seven children between 1588 and 1595, William, Margaret,
Elizabeth, John, Richard, Edward and Mary. William married Penelope Wriothesley in 1615 at Tichfield, Southamptonshire, England.*(1) She was
the daughter of Henry Wriothesly and Elizabeth Vernon. Penelope Wriothesley was probably acquainted with the famous writer and playwright,
William Shakespeare, because her father was his patron, and was acknowledged as such by Shakespeare in one of his writings. William Spencer
and Penelope had thirteen children, named Robert, Margaret, Mary, Anne, Catherine, Alice, Richard, Thomas, John, Rachel, Elizabeth, Henry and
William. Robert married a woman named Jane, who may have been a cousin, at Yarton, Oxfordshire, England and their son was named James who
married a woman named Isabello.The only son and heir of Henry was Robert Spencer, 2nd Earl of Sunderland. Born in Paris on 4 August 1640, he
died at Althorp on 28 September 1702 and is also buried at Brington. In 1665 he married the beautiful Lady Anne Digby, youngest daughter of
George Digby, 2nd Earl of Bristol and Anne Russell (daughter of Francis Russell, 4th Earl of Bedford). More wealth came their way when Anne
inherited all her brother’s estates in 1698.Robert was a lady-killer and had several mistresses, whilst his wife was little better: she had her
gallants. Throughout his career, Robert, known as Sunderland, showed himself to be an intriguer — treacherous, profligate and rapacious.
He supported James II whilst maintaining secret meetings with William of Orange. On James’ fall he declared he was a protestant and so,
in April 1697, he was made Lord Chamberlain, although he resigned the following December. Sunderland and Anne had three sons and four
daughters. One of these sons was the Statesman and Bibliophile, Charles Spencer, 3rd Earl of Sunderland, Whig M.P. for Tiverton. He was born in
1674 and died on 19 April 1722. He held high office under Queen Anne and George I, being prime minister in 1718 until he was ruined by the
South Sea Bubble. This man was thrice married: 1) in 1695 to Lady Arabella Cavendish, who died 1698; 2) in January 1700 to Lady Anne Churchill,
2nd daughter of the Duke of Marlborough and Sarah Jennings. (Anne is said to have converted her mother to Whiggism and was her
father’s favourite. Sadly she died at the age of 28 in April 1716); 3) on 5 Dee. 1717, Judith, daughter of Benjamin Tichborne, a very
wealthy man. When Charles Spencer died, Judith married Robert Sutton, K.B. and died herself in 1749.From his second marriage, to Anne
Churchill, Charles had issue including Charles Spencer, who succeeded his aunt Henrietta as 3rd Duke of Marlborough, and the Hon. John Spencer
(1708-1746), ancestor of Diana, HRH The Princess of Wales. The third Duke was born 22 November 1706 and died, aged 52, of fever at Munster
on 20 October 1758. He was a brigadier general and had commanded a brigade at Dettingen in 1743. His wife was Elizabeth Trevor, whom he had
married in 1732 and who died in 1761; she was the daughter of Thomas, 2nd Lord Trevor of Bromham, who had been created a peer specifically
to assist Parliament get the Treaty of Utrecht onto the books in 1713.Their son, George Spencer, became the 4th Duke of Marlborough at the age
of nineteen. He was born on 26 January 1739 and died at Blenheim on 29 January 1817. During his lifetime he was Ensigny in Coldstream Guards
1755, Captain of 20th Foot 1756, Lord Lieutenant of Oxford 1760, Bearer of Sceptre and Cross at the coronation of George III, Lord Chamberlain
1762 and instituted as a Knight of the Garter in 1771. On 23 August 1762 he married Lady Caroline Russell, daughter of John, 4th Duke of
Bedford; she died on 26 November 1811.We now have a change of surname because their son, George, 5th Duke of Marlborough, took the
additional name of Churchill by royal license in 1817. The Churchill surname is interesting in its origin and could perhaps be the subject of another
article. Burke’s Peerage gives the family origin as coming from Gitto de Leon whose son was Wandril de Leon, Lord of Courcil. The name
then changed from "de Courcil" to "de Chirchil" and ultimately "Churchill".George was born on 6 March 1766
and died at Blenheim on 5 March 1840, having married in 1791 Susan, 2nd daughter of John Stewart, 7th Earl of Galloway. Lady Soames has
written an excellent biography, The Profligate Duke (London: Collins 1987).The 6th Duke of Marlborough became the title of their son, George
Spencer Churchill, born 1793 and died 1857. He too married three times. His first wife, Lady Jane Stewart, daughter of the Earl of Galloway, was
mother to his son, John Winston Spencer Churchill, 7th Duke; but he later married Charlotte Flower, daughter of Viscount Ashbrook; and then
Jane, daughter of the Hon. Edward Stewart.There is a tradition that the Spencer Family fled England after the defeat of the Royal cause of Charles
I in 1647/48.*(3) The constitution of all representative or governing bodies was affected, especially that of the Bermuda Company, where William
Spencer was a member of the Bermuda Company. It is believed that William was imprisoned and his wife kept under observation, but during the
dead of night, the family surreptitiously boarded a ship bound to Bermuda where they eventually arrived with no worldly goods except a chair in
which a Bible was hidden beneath a seat. The infant son Nicholas is supposed to have been the first of the name in Bermuda, though he
apparently didn't remain in Bermuda, but immigrated to America to Virginia and Philadelphia.Refer to page for North American Spencer
Lines.Throughout the history of the last millenium (1000-2000 AD) the Spencer name has been famous throughout the world. Probably the most
famous Spencer was Princess Diana Spencer (1961-1997), the wife of Prince Charles and mother of two sons. George John Spencer, the 2nd earl
of Spencer was a British public official elected to the House of Commons in 1780. Prime minister William Pitt appointed him to the first lord of the
admiralty in 1794, and he was responsible for the selection of Horatio Nelson to command the fleet that won the famous naval battle of Aboukir in
1798. He left office in 1801, but later served as home secretary. His son, John Charles Spencer, 3rd Earl Spencer, was chancellor of the exchequer
and leader of the House of Commons under Lord Earl Gray. He joined with Lord John Russell to formulate and pass the Reform Bill of 1832
through the Commons.Refer to page for North American Spencer Lines.The Spencer Dynasty has lines, also, in Portugal, France and Italy.

*(1)The Visitation of the County of Warwick in 1619.
*(2)Annales Londonienses, Annales Paulini, Bridlington, Vita Edwardi II, T. de la Moore's Vita et Mors Edwards II in Chronicles of Edward I and
Edward II, i. ii. ed. Dr. W. Stubbs, Rolls Ser., J. Trokelowe, ed. Riley, Rolls Ser
*(3) Bermuda Settlers of the 17th Century by Julia E. Mercer.
*(4)Turkeyfoot, Pennsylvania genealogy compiled by Eber Cockley, publisher of the Meyersdale, Pennsylvania newspaper, compiled for Anne
Spencer Stallman.Material by Glenn Abernathy and Janet Daniels.
Bayeux Tapestry